Aerobic capacity (VO2 max) is the maximum capacity of our body to transport and utilize oxygen during exercise and is partially genetically influenced. The ATP energy required by the muscles is produced with the help of oxygen. This is the reason why there is progressive increase in breathing when the intensity of exercises increases. The body needs more oxygen to produce the necessary ATP energy for muscle movement. People of various genetic types differ in the level of oxygen uptake during exercise.
Muscle strength, measured by hand grip strength, is an accessible and widely used proxy of muscular ﬁtness. Hand grip strength is associated with frailty and risk of fracture. People of certain genetic types have a better hand grip strength than others.
Flexibility is the ability of your joints and muscles to move freely (Range of motion). It is important in fitness because it allows for better range of movement when playing sports or exercising. Flexibility is attributed to the protein collagen and the extracellular matrix that surrounds the cells. We have analyzed the genes that could potentially influence your flexibility and performance by influencing composition of ligaments and tendons. People of certain genetic types have better flexibility when compared to others.
Endurance is the body's capacity to utilize oxygen for energy production and sustain it for a prolonged duration of physical activity. We analyze genes that influence the type of fuel used by the cells for energy production, percentage distribution of muscle fibers and the adaptability of the blood vessels to carry oxygen and other aspects, which differs from person to perosn.
Heart Capacity is the ability of the heart to increase cardiac output to meet increased needs for oxygen during physical activity or exercise. Cardiac capacity is a combination of the physical condition of the heart and aerobic fitness level. People of certain genetic types have better heart capacity than others.
Tendons and ligaments are dense connective tissues made of collagen or elastin fibers that run parallel to each other, creating strong cords. Ligaments connect bone to bone to form joints -- such as knees, elbows, hips and ankles. People of certain genetic types may have stronger ligaments than others.
Total lung capacity, or TLC, refers to the total amount of air in the lungs after taking the deepest breath possible. People of certain genetic types have higher lung capacity than others.
Certain individuals readily take up physical activity, while others lack the motivation for it. Neuro chemicals produced by the body in response to exercise influence how much we get habituated to physical activity and hence are motivated to repeat it again and again. People of certain genetic types take to physical activity more readily than others.
|HDL cholesterol level
Regular exercise helps in increasing your HDL cholesterol levels. People of certain genetic types experience a greater increase in HDL levels than others.
|Injury risk |
Sportsmen and runners who place stress on the Achilles tendon have the greatest likelihood of muscle injury and tendinopathy. The Achilles tendon connects your calf muscles to your heel bone. Tendinopathy refers to injury to the tendon. People of certain genotypes are more prone to injury than others and are at increased risk of tendinopathy and other related injuries.
|Insulin sensitivity |
Exercise generally improves your insulin sensitivity. People of certain genetic types experience greater improvements than others.
|Likelihood of fatigue
Lactate is the preferred source of fuel for energy production in the exercising muscle when there is a lack of oxygen (anaerobic metabolism). When muscles use up energy during physical activity, there is lactate build-up, which can lead to muscle fatigue. Exercise-induced rise in inflammation can also contribute to muscle fatigue.
|Tendon strength |
Tendons and ligaments are dense connective tissues made of collagen or elastin fibers that run parallel to each other, creating strong cords. People of certain genetic types have better tendon strength than others.
Power is the rapid burst of energy observed during high intensity activities of shorter duration. Type II or fast twitch muscle fibers allow us to perform rapid, high intensity movements. We analyze genes that influence the percentage distribution of muscle fibers (slow twitch and fast twitch) and their ability to exert maximal power over a short period of time and other aspects.
|Weight gain or loss with exercise
Regular exercise aids in weight management via improved metabolism. People of certain genetic types may benefit more than others in terms of weight loss in response to exercise.
|Injury recovery |
The process of exercise causes inflammation and minor tissue damage. During rest periods, the body heals and recovers from this damage. People of certain genetic types recover quickly, while others require longer periods, which influences the frequency of exercise, rehab intensity and supplementation needs.