Checkout our new 
Gene Sleep Report

The Peroxisome Proliferator- Activated Receptor (PPARA) gene is associated with the synthesis of Peroxisome Proliferator- Activated Receptor Alpha (PPARA), a protein associated with the activation of other genes and also in regulation of fatty acid oxidation during exercise. A lack of energy in the cells activate this gene like during endurance exercises or when fasting. Variants of the gene are shown to be associated with endurance, power, aerobic capacity and cardio fitness (heart rate)

PPARA level is higher in tissues which catabolize fatty acids like skeletal and cardiac muscle and the liver while it is lower in other tissues like the pancreas.

Does your 23andme, Ancestry DNA, FTDNA raw data have PPARA gene variant information?

CHIP VersionPPARA SNPs
23andMe (Use your 23andme raw data to know your PPARA Variant)
v1 23andmePresent
v2 23andmePresent
v3 23andmePresent
v4 23andmePresent
V5 23andme (current chip)Present
AncestryDNA  (Use your ancestry DNA raw data to know your PPARA Variant)
v1 ancestry DNAPresent
V2 ancestry DNA (current chip)Present
Family Tree DNA  (Use your FTDNA raw data to know your PPARA Variant)
OmniExpress microarray chipPresent

Association with Endurance:

In a study conducted on athletes, people with G variant were associated with endurance. A similar study conducted on soccer players showed that people with the G variant were highly represented. People with the G variant were found to have higher amount of slow twitch fibers.

Association with Power:

People with the C variant of the gene had better hand grip strength, thereby, better at power based activities than people with the G variant.

Association with Aerobic capacity:

People with the G variant were associated with higher oxygen consumption, thereby better aerobic capacity when compared with people with the C variant of the gene.

Association with Cardio fitness (Oxygen pulse):

People with the G variant were associated with higher values of oxygen pulse.

Genotype   rs4253778PhenotypeRecommendation
GG[Advantage] More likely to have better endurance [Advantage] More likely to have more slow twitch fibers [Advantage] More likely to have better aerobic capacity [Advantage] More likely to have higher oxygen pulseLikely better endurance Include plenty of endurance based activities like dancing and playing cricket into the fitness routine
GCModerate power and enduranceLikely better endurance Include plenty of endurance based activities like dancing and playing cricket into the fitness routine
CC[Advantage] More likely to have better power   [Advantage] More likely to have more fast twitch fibers [Limitation] More likely to have lower aerobic capacity [Limitation] More likely to have lower oxygen pulseLikely better power Include power based activities like kicking a football and squats into the fitness routine


References
:

  1. http://www.ommegaonline.org/article-details/Role-of-Peroxisome-Proliferator-Activated-Receptor-Alpha-(PPARA)-rs4253778-Polymorphism-in-Endurance-Phenotype/1152
  2. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/226721692_PPARa_gene_variation_and_physical_performance_in_Russian_athletes
  3. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4157815/

Nutrigenetics, fitness genetics, health genetics are all nascent but rapidly growing areas within human genetics. The information provided herein is based on preliminary scientific studies and it is to be read and understood in that context.”

The Matrix Metalloproteinase 3 (MMP3) gene is associated with the synthesis of matrix metalloproteinase 3 (also called Stromelysin-1), an enzyme which is associated with the breakdown of extra cellular matrix during the normal physiological process. MMP3 is required to maintain Extra Cellular Matrix (ECM) homeostasis and it contributes to the material integrity, as well as the mechanical properties of tendons. An elevated expression of the MMP3 gene has been shown to be associated with increased degeneration of the matrix, resulting in an imbalance, with a greater rate of degradation when compared to the synthesis.

There are two single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with this gene, rs679620 and rs3025058. People with the G variant (rs679620) of this gene are shown to be associated with increased level of MMP3 expression. Variants of the gene are shown to be associated with changes in the extracellular matrix which affects the risk of muscle injury and the wound healing.

Does your 23andme, Ancestry DNA, FTDNA raw data have MMP3 gene variant information?

CHIP VersionMMP3 SNPs
23andMe (Use your 23andme raw data to know your MMP3 Variant)
v1 23andmePresent
v2 23andmePresent
v3 23andmePresent
v4 23andmePresent
V5 23andme (current chip)Present
AncestryDNA  (Use your ancestry DNA raw data to know your MMP3 Variant)
v1 ancestry DNAPresent
V2 ancestry DNA (current chip)Present
Family Tree DNA  (Use your FTDNA raw data to know your MMP3 Variant)
OmniExpress microarray chipPresent

Association with Muscle Injury:

The Achilles tendon is the largest tendon in the body, connecting the heel bone to the calf muscle. It is used while walking, jumping or running. An injury in the Achilles tendon, called Achilles tendinopathy, can be painful and is a big hindrance to athletes.  A study conducted on South African athletes showed that the two SNPs G variant (rs679620) and 5A variant (rs3025058) were associated with Achilles tendinopathy. In another study conducted on Caucasians, people with the G variant (rs679620) were shown to be significantly associated with an increased risk for Achilles tendinopathy. In another study that analyzed the influence of MMP3 gene on Achilles tendon pathology, the G variant of the gene was found to be over represented in people with Achilles tendon rupture. In a study conducted on people with anterior cruciate ligament injuries, people with the 5A variant were shown to be overrepresented.

Genotype (rs679620)PhenotypeRecommendation
AA[Advantage] More likely to have lower level of MMP3 enzyme [Advantage] Less likely to develop Achilles tendinopathy [Limitation] Likely to have higher risk for post operative stiffnessThere is low risk of injury, which would allow active participation in various sports, provided other genetic factors also indicate a low risk.
AGModerate stiffness on rotator cuff injury repairThere should be increased period of rest between training sessions to lower risk of injury
GG[Limitation]More likely to have higher level of MMP3 enzyme [Limitation] 2.5 times more likely to develop Achilles tendinopathy than people with the A variant [Advantage] Likely to have lower risk of post operative stiffnessThere should be increased period of rest between training sessions to lower risk of injury

References:

  1. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=27211292
  2. http://bjsm.bmj.com/content/43/7/514
  3. https://benthamopen.com/contents/pdf/TOSMJ/TOSMJ-6-8.pdf
  4. http://www.gonidio.com/eng_sport_2_10_2013.pdf
  5. http://marker.to/gbEsPo
  6. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=26191285
  7. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=27211292
  8. http://ifk-kliniken.orthocenter.se/documents/10.1007_s00167-016-4081-6.pdf
  9. http://www.pilarmartinescudero.es/dic13/The%20genetics%20of%20sports%20injuries%20and%20athletic%20perfomance.pdf
  10. http://ijcep.com/files/ijcep0043300.pdf
  11. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4397992/

Nutrigenetics, fitness genetics, health genetics are all nascent but rapidly growing areas within human genetics. The information provided herein is based on preliminary scientific studies and it is to be read and understood in that context.”

Since the start of Olympics in 776 BC, running has always been a remarkable event in the world of sport. This Rio 2016 is no exception and set to be another epic feast for running fans. The fundamental dimension of the Olympics is all about “Citius, Altius, Fortius” which translates to “Faster, Higher, stronger” and running itself abides by the same principle.

In the past, stories of sprinting successes by people of Jamaican heritage sparked interest in the genetic advantage that Jamaicans and people with West African ancestry might have, especially when it comes to raw muscle power.

The adaptations of the human body and its role in Olympics

[hr height="30" style="default" line="default" themecolor="1"]All of the diversity that is visible today among the 7 billion people on earth is the story of human genetic adaptation to their environment. For example, if the ancestors of certain people lived in hot and humid regions with significant sun exposure, they will have stronger skin pigmentation- which protects them from cancer causing UV rays. An example that is relevant to sports performance is that of ancestors who lived at higher altitudes above sea level. These places have lower levels of oxygen than what is found at sea level. As a result, their bodies have adaptations that make them efficient at extracting more oxygen out of the air they breath. All other things being equal, a person from higher altitude will have an advantage over someone from a lower altitude. Similarly, various other adaptations can be seen that offer specific advantages in various aspects of life. Of course, adaptations are only part of the story. The sheer human will to train and outcompete is the other part.

Role of ACTN3 gene

[hr height="30" style="default" line="default" themecolor="1"]

ydznvrm

Credits: www.notchandpost.com

ACTN3 gene is the most widely studied sports performance related gene. The ACTN3 gene encodes instructions for making a specific muscle protein, ?-actinin-3, found exclusively in fast twitch muscle fibres. This protein is essential for greater strength & to protect against muscle damage which provides the benefits needed in speed or power based activity, such as sprinting or weight lifting.
There are different versions of ACTN3 gene and which version you carry determines how
much of the alpha-actinin-3 p
rotein you produce in your fast twitch muscle fibres. Some people have a fully functional version
that produces lot of alpha- actinin 3, commonly called the R allele.  This is associated with a boost in muscle strength and sprint performance.
And some people have a non- working version of the gene, commonly called
the X allele that prevents it from making this protein and such people lack this protein in their muscles.  Lack of this protein does not cause any harm to the body, but it does affect the level of athletic performance. It is probably close to impossible for someone who lacks this protein to reach the elite levels of sports performance especially in power based act
ivities, except for very rare cases.

Studies have indicated that people lacking the R allele of ACTN3 may have an advantage in endurance based sports. Such people also seem to have higher proportion of slow twitch muscle fibres and reduced fatigue which is advantageous in endurance performance.

 

 

Want to know if you have the “gene for speed?” Xcode’s fitness genetics test can tell you what versions of the ACTN3 gene you have in your DNA. You can also learn about how your genes may influence other traits, including your risk for certain diseases.

 

The modern sedentary lifestyle has now made obesity, a national epidemic.

Doctors, nutritionists, and fitness professionals are doing everything they can to encourage people to lead healthier lives.

Why not use your 23andme fitness information from your raw data to learn more about the status of sports-related genes like ACE and ACTN3?

Why do some people respond to an aerobic workout routine by becoming incredibly fit, whereas others who exercise just as hard for months end up no fitter than when they began?

This question has bothered countless people who’ve started exercise programs and has also motivated a major study – “genetics of fitness”.

Scientists have long known that when a group of people follow the same aerobic workout routine, some increase their cardiorespiratory fitness substantially, while others seem to get no benefit at all.

But what is it, that makes one person’s body receptive to exercise and another’s resistant?

There is no magic workout that works for everybody.

Customization is the key, and over the years it is being commonly used in various fields.

Exercise for your phenotype by knowing your genotype

If healthcare and fitness professionals know a person’s genetic predispositions they can recommend a tailor-made exercise regimen that can maximize results.

By testing specific markers, researchers have discovered that certain traits such as stamina, muscle building, fat burning, energy distribution, etc. are governed by genetics, not effort.

At first, this may sound disappointing as it demonstrates that despite the efforts, some exercises simply do not benefit everyone equally.

Instead, this science clearly casts a light on what people should be doing to maximize their own unique fitness.

For example, the ACTN3 gene is responsible for the development of fast-twitch muscle fiber.

Determining whether someone is better suited towards sprinting-based activities (i.e. short distance running) or endurance-based exercises (i.e. long-distance running) is based on variations in this gene.

This drives home the point that genes can have profound effects on your health and body, even deep within your cells.

By knowing your genes, altering your exercise pattern can lead to better fitness conditions.

Do you have your DNA raw data from 23andMe, AncestryDNA, FTDNA, MyHeritage?

Upload your DNA raw data to Xcode Life. Our Gene Fitness Report analyzes aerobic capacity, weight loss/weight gain with exercises, flexibility, lung/heart capacity, and 15 more such categories.

Stretching is one of the most fundamental components of a fitness or exercise regime.

Performing stretching exercises before any fitness activity allows the body to become more flexible and less prone to injury. Stretching after exercise is also equally important. It allows the muscles to get back to their normal form and helps reduce muscle soreness and pain.

Flexibility is attributable to the protein collagen that surrounds cells. In fact, 25-30% of whole body protein is collagen! There are different types of collagens, each regulated by different genes. Collagen type V is important for flexibility. The more the flexible you are, the less you need to stretch before and after exercise. However, the presence of flexibility can lead to reduced exercise performance since more energy is required for muscle stabilising activity.

Flexibility is an indispensable aspect of fitness as it reflects the propensity for exercise-associated muscle injury. Your degree of flexibility and risk for tendinopathy as determined through genes are helpful in deciding the type and duration of your pre and post stretching exercises which would make your fitness regimen more comfortable for you to follow.

© Copyright 2010-20 - Xcode Life - All Rights Reserved
heartheart-pulsegiftchevron-down linkedin facebook pinterest youtube rss twitter instagram facebook-blank rss-blank linkedin-blank pinterest youtube twitter instagram