Checkout our new 
Gene Tool

Ever wondered how some people run multi-million dollar companies along with a gazillion other philanthropic work? Read on to understand more about entrepreneurship potential and the debate about its source of origin. 

Who is an entrepreneur?

From selling cupcakes to running a multi-million dollar biggie, entrepreneurs form a diverse spectrum.

Any business idea, transformed into a business model to serve customers/clients fall under entrepreneurship.

But most of them, who run big or small successful businesses have some highly similar qualities. 

It takes more than just an idea to be a successful entrepreneur.

The first "light bulb" moment is only a start to a snowball of those to follow. Initially, setting up an idea means having to act as five different roles in one.

Granted we have a lot of resources online, but to gather the motivation and humility to be able to understand and learn new things and then adapt that into your idea of a business model, takes quite some time.

So, first and foremost, patience is key.

And most definitely, you would have to disable ‘autoplay’ on youtube, too bad Netflix doesn't let you do that! 

1. Just like life, business needs a purpose

Understanding a market gap and tapping into that potential is extremely important with new ideas.

Your cupcakes might taste out of the world delicious, but what is the customers’ incentive to buy them, if they can find great cupcakes (tried and tested) from Costco?

What if you add a factor of customization, say you provide the customers icing essentials to make it their own?

That might make it interesting.

Understanding what the customers need and delivering, is one of the most crucial components of entrepreneurship.

When American computer scientist, Paul Graham was asked what are the most important things to remember to become a successful entrepreneur, he said, surrounding yourself with good, efficient people, finding the best market-product fit and spending as little money as possible.

These frame a 3-step activation for your success account. If either of them fails to happen, it could be significantly hard to create a successful empire. 

What do successful entrepreneurs do? 

A successful entrepreneur in one of his books talks about how running a startup is like juggling.

It creates an illusion that you’re balancing three balls mid-air but in reality, a juggler focuses on one ball to balance the rest.

This is how entrepreneurs deal with multitasking.

By prioritizing the right task at the right time. It is crucial to identify the most important problem and solve that first. 

“Most of us spend too much time on what is urgent and not enough time on what is important.”

Stephen R. Covey

It’s all about smart working

Hard Work is not the only key to success. Many entrepreneurs have seen success in hiring people who do smart work. 

"Hire a lazy person to do a difficult job they will find an easy way to do it"

Bill Gates

Entrepreneurs have to be constantly driven to work towards success.

All successful entrepreneurs have their dull days and depressing mornings.

They too get distracted with the sweet smell of freshly sprinkled earth or a fresh batch of cookies.

It’s about how they bring their attention back to work, which is admirable.

A famous tech expert, Aytekin Tank says finding this grit, to keep up with a goal for a lifetime comes from endless motivation and learning to overcome resistance.

Coming up with routines that get our body and mind prepped to do a task could make a significant difference. 

2. Find your north star!

Love is not the only kinda north star we need.

Having a life vision and mission for a company helps with clear growth and better focus towards the end goal.

In this ever-changing world, be it Twitter or LinkedIn there is a 200-300 character limit to say what you have in mind.

It’s highly crucial to stay focused and walk towards your north star. 

3. You’re a student for life

It’s common to see entrepreneurs sound profound and knowledgeable.

But the successful ones are almost always curious to understand more.

This constant need to understand and reinvent helps with rapid growth as the approach would be customer-centric instead of it being driven by trends based on market competition.

Reading helps!

Despite the common assumption that reading about entrepreneurship doesn't help you become one, it is important to read and understand experiences to avoid common mistakes and be exposed to different business models.

Of course, we are no Bill Gates who can read about 750 words per minute and follow that with a 90% retention rate but we sure can try! 

Nature or nurture? 

It’s not uncommon to see nepotism in the Business world.

Even The President of the United States, Donald Trump took over his father’s company, and now, his sons run the Trump empire.

There are endless debates on how businesses run successfully for generations.

Though arguably, it’s a matter of convenience to pass on power to our kin, studies suggest that genetics could contribute a fair share to why they run successfully. 

Here’s some complex math for you: 
Behavior patterns = Complex
Genetics = Complex
Behavioral Genetics = ? (haha, complex math)

Behavioral Genetics is barely black and white.

It’s hard to figure out what shade of grey we are looking at (we might need Christian’s help on that one!).

Since behavior entails what you are and what you see, it involves a great deal of both environmental factors and multiple genes that contribute to one trait of ours.

In the recent past, there has been emerging research conducted on such grey areas of behavioral science.

Thanks to all the mass observations about business tycoons, entrepreneurship has been one such potential studied. 

Born leaders? 

Most genetic research, to resolve debates of behavior, always conducts studies on twins.

Their high similarity in genetic makeup leads to more conclusive results than in general human studies.

Studies have shown that 30 to 35% of the entrepreneurial traits could be attributed to heritability.

Though this implies that environmental factors contribute to the rest of the major 70%, 1/3rd of the fraction is a significant number to make or break, in this fast-paced world.

Nonetheless, having a genetic predisposition only increases the likelihood of becoming a successful entrepreneur, but that has to coincide with various other environmental factors and maybe a few tik-tok videos to make it big in this world.

4. Is there an entrepreneurial gene?

As organizational behavior is a higher-order function, genes that are related to it often are responsible for very brainy activities.

Brain activities control the release of different brain chemicals like neurotransmitters and these activities are controlled by different genes responsible for their action.

For example, Serotonin levels can contribute to the attitude of ‘taking chances’.

This would help you be less risk-averse which is beneficial for an entrepreneur. 

As we are all humans and the genetic outline is pretty much the same, we often find different variations of one particular gene.

These range from the tiniest of a change at a nucleotide level (the fundamental unit of the DNA structure) called Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) to big structural variations where chunks of the DNA are cut out, duplicated, etc.

These are often causes of genetic diseases.

But SNPs are the most common type of variation known to human beings.

The outcome of the variations depends on the extent of its influence in the gene.

The functions of the gene could be altered, like structuring a protein or if it is a regulatory gene, it might affect that function.

Some of these variations could make us susceptible to different traits.

This applies in case of behavioral traits too.

Now, these different variations make us susceptible to traits that are common in successful entrepreneurs, it increases our likelihood of becoming one, too.

The likelihood increase would take place only with the possession of the uncommon variation, often referred to as the minor allele. 

RNF144B gene

A major study conducted to understand the genetic influences in self-employment discovered SNPs in the gene RNF144B, indicating an increased probability of being self-employed.

The minor allele T, of an SNP in this gene, has an association with an increased probability of being self-employed.

TT GenotypeIncreased probability of being self-employed
CC GenotypeNormal entrepreneurship skills

SV2C gene

The SNPs of the SV2C gene was also part of the study with two different variations. RNF144B is a gene that codes for a structural protein.

SV2C on the other hand codes for brain transport proteins called synaptic vesicles. So the range of the involvement of these genes is extremely varied.   

AA GenotypeIncreased probability of being self-employed
GG GenotypeNormal entrepreneurship skills

Several other genes also have an association with entrepreneurship potential.

5. Right place at the right time

To quote an example from Scott Shane’s best-seller: 

 Born Entrepreneurs, Born Leaders: How Your Genes Affect Your Work Life

Some people might have a version of a gene that increases their odds of making large financial bets, but the influence of this gene on risk-taking might only be manifest in high-pressure, short-time-to-make-a-decision situations, such as currency trading operations.

Thus, the gene might not influence managers’ decisions to gamble billions of dollars on new technologies after months of careful evaluation, but it might affect traders’ choices to bet billions of dollars on currencies in a few seconds on foreign exchange markets.

This also helps us understand how there are no binaries with these behavioral traits.

However, the genetic predisposition only increases the likelihood of your entrepreneurship potential.

If the person who is good with big financial bets never explores a career in a Wall street set-up, he would never discover his potential.

The rest of the environmental factors HAVE to coincide to create a successful entrepreneur.

This could be as fundamental as having the means to source capital for the implementation of the business idea. 

Entrepreneurship potential still has many unknowns we are yet to explore.

But we have to understand and acknowledge that various factors are contributing to an entrepreneur’s success.

Be it genetic or environmental, it is a life-long journey of being best at what you do.

Being successful in any field takes some serious perseverance and commitment.

So, regardless of the origin of our instincts, let’s try to be good at what we do!

Have your DNA raw data from 23andMe, FTDNA, or MyHeritage?

Upload your raw data to Xcode Life for insights into 700+ health-related traits!

References

DRD2 gene: An introduction

DRD2 is a protein-coding gene that is located on chromosome 11.

The Dopamine Receptor Gene (DRD2) is associated with the synthesis of DRD2, which is the main receptor for all antipsychotic drugs.

The hormone Dopamine is a neurotransmitter and its secretion is increased during emotional upheavals.  

From an evolutionary aspect, this hormone is released in response to some adverse condition, to prepare the body for a flight or fight response.

Under normal circumstances, when dopamine binds to DRD2 receptor, it should lower feelings of hunger and increase satiety.

Specific alleles of the DRD2 gene have been shown to be associated with a lower amount of DRD2 in the brain, which could lead to binge eating or overeating.

What is the function of dopamine receptors?

Before we look at the function of dopamine receptors, let’s understand what is dopamine.

Dopamine is a very important neurotransmitter and neurohormone in the body, which is responsible for enabling communication between nerve cells in the brain.

Dopamine is also linked with the brain's pleasure and reward system, and also controls movement.

Apart from this, dopamine also plays a role in memory and focus.

Dopamine receptors are important when we talk about certain neurological disorders like Parkinson’s disease.

Dopamine is produced by the substantia nigra in the brain( a part of the basal ganglia) which is responsible for controlling movement.

So, a steady flow of dopamine to these dopamine receptors ensures that controlled bodily movements occur normally.

But, when there is a decrease in dopamine reaching the receptors, movement, controlled movement and motor skills are affected, as we see in case of Parkinson’s disease.

The reverse of this happens in Tourette’s syndrome, where there is an excess of dopamine leading to excessive movements.

Dopamine receptors ensure adequate neurological signaling to allow dopamine to perform its functions and abnormal dopamine receptor signaling results in neuropsychiatric disorders.

These receptors are also the prime target of neurological drugs such as antipsychotics.   

Types of Dopamine Receptors

There are 5 types of dopamine receptors – DRD1 to DRD5.

Dopamine Receptor 1 (DRD1)

It is a member of the D1-like receptor family and is the most abundant dopamine receptor found in the CNS.

The DRD1 receptor is found in the cortex, striatum and the limbic system of the brain, and the cardiovascular system.

It modulates the actions of dopamine receptor D2.

When dopamine binds to the DRD1 receptor, it regulates the growth and development of nerve cells in the brain and influences behavioral responses.

Dopamine Receptor 2(DRD2)

This receptor is a member of the D2-like receptor family and is found in many regions of the brain but has the highest concentration in the basal ganglia.

Since the basal ganglia comprise of structures responsible for motor control and learning, the DRD2 receptor mutations result in diseases such as schizophrenia or disorders like myoclonus dystonia. 

Along with the DRD1 receptor, the DRD2 receptor reinforces the effects of drug abuse.

Dopamine Receptor 3 (DRD3)

This is a part of the D2-like receptor family-like Drd2 and is mainly present in two regions of the limbic system – the islands of Calleja and nucleus accumbens.

These two areas of the brain are primarily involved in reinforcing pleasure activities and emotions like addiction, laughter, etc.

It has been researched that mutations in this receptor can increase the susceptibility to a hereditary essential tremor 1, which is a type of movement disorder.

Dopamine Receptor 4 (DRD4) 

It is also a member of the D2-like receptor family and is the receptor that is targeted by medications that are aimed at treating neurological disorders such as Parkinson’s and Schizophrenia.

This receptor is involved in motor coordination and exploratory behavior in humans.

A mutation in the DRD4 receptor can result in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and dysfunction of the autonomic nervous system.

Dopamine receptor 5 (DRD5)

It is a member of the D1-like receptor family, just like DRD1.

These receptors are present in the limbic system of the brain and have a variety of functions such as long-term memory, smell, emotion, and behavior.

It has been shown that the D5 receptors have a higher affinity than the D1 receptors which means that they bind more easily to dopamine.

Dopamine receptor: What’s the genetic link?

Association with a tendency to overeat (binge eating disorder)

The SNP rs1800497 is also known as the Taq1A polymorphism of the dopamine D2 receptor(DRD2).

In a study conducted on obese people, Binge eating disorder and it was found that it was significantly associated with SNP rs1800497 and rs6277 that show enhanced or increased dopamine production.

The presence of the A1 allele is associated with reduced dopamine receptor availability in the brain thereby it was hypothesized that carrying this allele would increase the risk of emotional eating, especially in adolescents.

People with the T variant of the gene were found to be associated with increase in emotional eating behavior.

A recent study conducted on children found that T variant predisposes them to greater energy intake and higher risk of obesity.

Also, the presence of the T variant improves the speed of processing in individuals as compared to those who have the C variant.

The G allele of SNP rs4245150 of the DRD2 gene is associated with an increase in worry and anxiety.

TraitSNPGeneGenotypeRisk
Perceptual speedrs3758653DRD4CTT variant is associated with better performance on processing speed
Anxietyrs4245150DRD2TGG variant associated with risk of anxiety

Association with language learning or bilingual ability

In a study conducted to determine linguistic language learning ability, people with the CC genotype were shown to be associated with better concatenative memory.

Another study conducted on older people, it was found that people with C variant had better associative memory.

A research was conducted to determine the genetic basis of bilingual ability, the T variant was found twice the amount among Spanish-English bilinguals than among only English speaking students.

Genotype (rs1800497)PhenotypeRecommendation
CC[Advantage] More likely to have higher amount of DRD2 in the brain

[Advantage] Less likely to have binge eating disorder

[Advantage] More likely to have better associative memory

[Limitation] Less likely to be bilingual
Less likely to have binge eating disorder

More likely to have better memory

Including activities that improve memory will further enhance the ability
CTModerate amount of DRD2 in the brain with moderate binge eating behaviorMore likely to have binge eating disorder

Consciously avoid eating when in distress or when feeling low

Store healthy snacks which will avoid unhealthy binge eating
TT[Limitation] More likely to have lower amount of DRD2 in the brain

[Limitation] More likely to have binge eating disorder

[Limitation] More likely to have better associative memory

[Advantage] More likely to be bilingual
More likely to have binge eating disorder
Consciously avoid eating when in distress or when feeling low

Store healthy snacks which will avoid unhealthy binge eating

More likely to be bilingual

Learn new languages and tap into your innate potential

Where are dopamine receptors in the brain? 

The different types of D2-like receptors are found in different regions in the brain.

The D2 receptors are in high concentration in:

  1. Basal ganglia –caudate, putamen regions
  2. Nucleus accumbens
  3. Ventral tegmental area
  4. Substantia nigra
  5. Amygdala
  6. Hippocampus
  7. Septal region
  8. Thalamus
  9. Cerebellum(in lobules IX and X) 
  10. Cerebral cortex

The D3 receptors are more limited in distribution and are found mainly in the nucleus accumbens of the limbic system.

However, less number of the D3 receptors are found in:

  1. Substantia nigra
  2. Septal regions
  3. Ventral tegmental area
  4. Cerebellum
  5. Cerebral cortex

 D4 receptors are the least in number in the brain and these are found in moderate levels in:

  1. Substantia nigra
  2. Hippocampus
  3. Nucleus accumbens
  4. Ventral tegmental area
  5. Amygdala
  6. Frontal cerebral cortex

What are the effective ways to stop overeating?

We often meet people in our social circles who are food-O-holics or are ‘foodies’ as they call themselves.

Most of these people struggle to control themselves when they see food or cannot prevent themselves from overeating.

But, on the other hand, we see some people who know exactly how much they want to eat and stop at a time when they feel they are full. These people avoid overeating.

While it may seem easy to prevent overeating, it is a habit that is difficult to break.

But, can one stop overeating?

Well, of course, you can! Here are a few effective ways to stop overeating:

Avoid distractions while you eat

these include watching TV or browsing through your phone, tablet or computer.

When you are distracted while eating, you tend to focus less on how much you are eating, often leading to excessive eating.

Eat low-calorie and high fiber foods

As these can make you feel full soon and yet you haven’t loaded up on excessive amounts of food or calories.

Including whole grains, salads, vegetables, fruits, etc., is a good way to increase the fiber content of your meals.

Don’t be too strict in avoiding foods

If you are seriously trying to avoid overeating, there are high chances that you have tried to keep food that you tend to indulge in away from you.

However, this behavior tends to backfire when you fall prey to the temptation and your problem of overeating is still unsolved.

Feel free to balance out the food items you eat and occasional indulgence will do no harm.

Avoid eating directly from packaged containers

When we eat chips from a packaged packet or munch on popcorn from a tub, we tend to binge eat on them without knowing the quantity we are consuming.

The best thing to do in such cases is getting out just the proportioned or measured amounts of food items onto the plate.

Eating regularly

Having a set routine for your three meal and snack-time is one of the time-tested methods to prevent overeating.

When you eat your meals regularly, your body knows how much it needs.

When you eat erratically or tend to skip meals, you feel more hungry due to a calorie deficit and this leads to overeating during the next meal.

Load up on protein foods

When you consume foods that are high in proteins such as a high protein breakfast, it tends to lower the hunger causing hormone ghrelin, thereby preventing overeating.

It is also a great idea to consume some yogurt in your breakfast for the same reason.

Eat slowly

It is often said that one must eat slowly and each meal should last a minimum of 20 minutes.

This is because this is the time needed by your stomach to convey to your brain that it is now full and that you need to stop eating.

However, in today’s lifestyle, people tend to eat really fast to save on time and get back to work.

This leads to unintentional overeating and we often don’t realize it.

Consume more water

There is no substitute for water.

Consuming more water throughout the day and keeping yourself hydrated also helps you feel less hungry, thereby preventing overeating during mealtimes.

Avoid falling into the diet-fad trap

Every now and then we come across diets that promise you weight loss and a healthy lifestyle.

But, these diets are not sustainable and people often fall back into their old lifestyles.

What are the natural remedies for anxiety?

We all feel anxious in our day to day lives, especially in today’s world where we all struggle for something or the other.

It is okay to suffer from anxiety once in a while but in many individuals, it becomes a chronic problem.

Anxiety which is chronic in form has detrimental effects on one’s mind and body and severely impacts the quality of one’s life.

While there are many medications in the market that help reduce or treat this condition, it is best to resort to some natural methods of doing so. Some of these are:

Getting adequate amounts of good quality sleep

Sleep is the best healer and medicine for our body for this is when our body relaxes completely.

People suffering from anxiety often find it difficult to get good sleep but they can use some tips to improve their sleep duration and quality.

When your mind and body have relaxed enough, you tend to feel the difference in your anxiety levels.

Avoid caffeine

Caffeine causes mental alertness, can make your mind active and can cause nervousness.

So, if you already suffer from anxiety, avoid caffeinated foods and drinks and resort to something more calming and soothing to both your mind and your body.

Avoid alcohol

Alcohol makes teleports you to another world, doesn’t it?

You feel comfortably numb or sedated and it gives you a sense of calmness.

But, the reality is that once the effect of alcohol starts to wear off, anxiety returns, and this time even more strong.

So, it is best to avoid resorting to alcohol and staying completely off it if you suffer from anxiety.

Avoid smoking

Just like alcohol, many people reach out for a puff when they are most stressed.

But, though the nicotine tends to offer you solace at that moment, in the long term, it tends to push you more towards developing an anxiety disorder.

Eat healthy food

Though quite a clichéd statement, eating healthy is actually beneficial for reducing your stress levels.

One must avoid foods that contain too much sugar, artificial sweeteners, flavors and colors, chemicals, dehydrating agents and preservatives.

All these affect one’s mood and temperament and can increase anxiety levels.

Meditation and deep breathing

The age-old art of meditation removes any negative and disturbing thoughts and helps instill a sense of calmness and peace of the mind.

However, it is easier said than done and this remedy often takes time but has repeatedly shown to reduce anxiety and people.

While slow, fast breathing is seen in cases of anxiety, practicing deep breathing while you meditate can help counter anxiety.

What is the travel gene?

What differentiates those homebodies who love to spend days on end at home and those that have this irking urge to undertake a holiday just a few days after they have returned from a long vacation?

Well, blame it on the DRD4-7R gene that is called as the ‘wanderlust gene’.

This gene codes for increased curiosity and restlessness and is present only in 20% of the population.

When proper history was taken while studying the gene, most people had a history of travel or will to travel.

This gene has also been linked to the first settlers in the continent of Africa who had the courage to migrate farther away from home, thereby spreading across the globe. 

A mutant form of this DRD4 gene, the 7r makes people more likely to take risks, explore new places, new food, cultures, new ideas, drugs, and sexual opportunities.

Few scientists also link this DRD4 7r gene with migration.

A few scientists have also linked this behavior that is ‘out of control’ and hints at those people who wish to quit their high paying jobs for a few months of vacation, which is clearly irrational.

However, for a species as vast as humans in terms of genetics, it is unfair and rather difficult to pin down one particular gene for people who travel.

References:

  1. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28241982
  2. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27647283
  3. ttps://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/gene/DRD2#location
  4. https://www.ebi.ac.uk/interpro/entry/IPR001922
  5. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5630172/
  6. https://www.ebi.ac.uk/gwas/variants/rs4245150

Nutrigenetics, fitness genetics, health genetics are all nascent but rapidly growing areas within human genetics. The information provided herein is based on preliminary scientific studies and it is to be read and understood in that context.”

Does your 23andme, Ancestry DNA, FTDNA raw data have DRD2 gene variant information?

CHIP VersionDRD2 SNPs
23andMe (Use your 23andme raw data to know your DRD2 Variant)
v1 23andmePresent
v2 23andmePresent
v3 23andmePresent
v4 23andmePresent
V5 23andme (current chip)Present
AncestryDNA  (Use your ancestry DNA raw data to know your DRD2 Variant)
v1 ancestry DNAPresent
V2 ancestry DNA (current chip)Present
Family Tree DNA  (Use your FTDNA raw data to know your DRD2 Variant)
OmniExpress microarray chipPresent
© Copyright 2010-20 - Xcode Life - All Rights Reserved
heartheart-pulsegiftchevron-down linkedin facebook pinterest youtube rss twitter instagram facebook-blank rss-blank linkedin-blank pinterest youtube twitter instagram