The skeletal muscle consists of two types of fibers – fast twitch and slow twitch. The slow twitch fibers work efficiently for a long period of time while the fast twitch fibers are responsible for the short and sudden burst of power necessary for sprinting or weightlifting. The ACTN3 gene is associated with the synthesis of alpha actinin 3 protein present in the fast twitch fibers (Type II) of skeletal muscle. The alpha actinin 3 protein is found almost exclusively in the fast twitch fibers.
Specific alleles of this gene are known to either increase or decrease the extent of muscle power based on the synthesis of the alpha actinin 3 protein. People with the C variant of the gene are associated with higher muscle power due to the presence of active alpha actinin 3 protein while people with the T variant of the gene are associated with lower muscle power due to the presence of inactive alpha actinin 3 protein. As a result, sprint or power athletes tend to have at least one copy of the C allele. Both the C and the T allele carriers have selective advantages in different environmental conditions.
ACTN3 Gene in various chip versions
|CHIP Version||ACTN3 SNPs|
|23andMe (Use your 23andme raw data to know your ACTN3 Variant)|
|V5 23andme (current chip)||Present|
|AncestryDNA (Use your ancestry DNA raw data to know your ACTN3 Variant)|
|v1 ancestry DNA||Present|
|V2 ancestry DNA (current chip)||Present|
|Family Tree DNA (Use your FTDNA raw data to know your ACTN3 Variant)|
|OmniExpress microarray chip||Present|
How can this information be used?
It is important to choose appropriate exercises based on the genetic profile. [/idea]
For people with C variant (High Muscle Power)
For people with T variant (Low Muscle Power)
- Nan Yang, Daniel G. MacArthur, Jason P. Gulbin, Allan G. Hahn, Alan H. Beggs, Simon Easteal,and Kathryn North; “ACTN3 Genotype Is Associated with Human Elite Athletic Performance”; Am J Hum Genet. 2003
- Seok-Ki Min, Seung-Taek Lim, and Chang-Sun Kim; “Association of ACTN3 polymorphisms with BMD, and physical fitness of elderly women”; J Phys Ther Sci. 2016 Oct
|Find out which variation of the gene you carry and more at www.xcode.life|
Nutrigenetics, fitness genetics, health genetics are all nascent but rapidly growing areas within human genetics. The information provided herein is based on preliminary scientific studies and it is to be read and understood in that context.