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The Fatty Acid Desaturase (FADS1) gene is associated with the synthesis of FADS1 protein, an enzyme secreted in the liver and shown to be associated with the conversion of shorter chain fatty acids to longer length active forms. The FADS1 protein is found to be associated with the conversion of omega 3 and omega 6 from plant based fats to functional and longer forms like EPA, DHA and arachidonic acid (AA). Animal meat, fish and eggs are already rich in EPA, DHA and arachidonic acid, which reduces the need for the FADS1 protein. People with the C variant of the gene are found to be associated with reduced activity of the protein.

Individuals who do not produce sufficient amount of fatty acids need to consume more animal foods to meet requirements, while individuals who can convert plant-based oils to EPA, DHA and arachidonic acid would benefit from consuming a diet that is rich in vegetable oils and lower in omega-6-rich animal meats.

When excess of omega-6-rich foods is consumed, it is found to be associated with inflammation which is found to increase the risk for diabetes and heart disease. Individuals who can synthesize long chain fatty acids from plant sources should, therefore, select sea food to meet PUFA requirements.

Ancestry:

The FADS1 single nucleotide polymorphism that we include is found to have a significant association with the fatty acid composition in our blood. The ancestral allele C (rs174547) was predominant among the hunter gatherers and, with the start of farming, the allele T became the predominant allele.

Does your 23andme, Ancestry DNA, FTDNA raw data have FADS1 gene variant information?

CHIP VersionFADS1 SNPs
23andMe (Use your 23andme raw data to know your FADS1 Variant)
v1 23andmePresent
v2 23andmePresent
v3 23andmePresent
v4 23andmePresent
V5 23andme (current chip)Present
AncestryDNA  (Use your ancestry DNA raw data to know your FADS1 Variant)
v1 ancestry DNAPresent
V2 ancestry DNA (current chip)Present
Family Tree DNA  (Use your FTDNA raw data to know your FADS1 Variant)
OmniExpress microarray chipPresent

Association with Omega 3 and Omega 6 need:

In a study conducted on 3521 Chinese participants and 8962 participants of European ancestry, individuals with the C variant of the gene were found to have lower levels of the long forms of fatty acids like AA.

In another study conducted on nearly 1200 Chinese men, Individuals with the T variant of the gene were more responsive to the cholesterol lowering effect of dietary eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), with reduction in coronary artery disease risk among individuals with high intake of long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. In a review study conducted on Japanese men, vegans with the C variant of the gene were found to have lower plasma concentrations of EPA, DHA and AA than individuals who were omnivores. Vegetarians with the C variant of the gene are shown to benefit from consuming omega 3 supplements or omega 3 rich foods like chia seed, flax seeds and canola oil.

Genotype rs174547PhenotypeRecommendation
TT[Advantage] More likely to have increased activity of the fatty acid saturase enzyme [Advantage] More likely to derive long chain fatty acids from a vegetarian dietPeople with this variant of the gene would benefit from a vegetarian diet. In case of non-vegetarians, a diet that includes seafood instead of red meat is recommended. Fish oil can be consumed as supplements or by eating fish.   Fish that are especially rich in omega 3 fatty acids include tuna, herring mackerel, cod liver, seal blubber and whale blubber
CC[Limitation]More likely to have decreased activity of the fatty acid saturase enzyme [Advantage] More likely to benefit from a diet rich in animal fatsPeople with this variant would benefit from a diet rich in animal fats, especially fish. In case of vegetarians, consuming twice the amount of canola oil when compared to people with the T variant would help increase the level of EPA. Omega 3 supplements may be consumed to compensate for the reduction in EPA due to lowered enzyme activity. Omega 3 foods that are rich vegetarian sources include chia seeds, flax seed oil and canola oil


References
:

  1. https://www.omicsonline.org/open-access/nutrigenetics-of-japanese-vegetarians-with-polymorphism-in-the-fatty-acid-desaturase-2155-9600-1000498.pdf
  2. https://oup.silverchair-cdn.com/oup/backfile/Content_public/Journal/hmg/

Related Links:

  1. https://www.xcode.life/dna-and-health/know-genes-tmprss6-iron-gene

Nutrigenetics, fitness genetics, health genetics are all nascent but rapidly growing areas within human genetics. The information provided herein is based on preliminary scientific studies and it is to be read and understood in that context.”

The big fat dilemma

[hr height="30" style="default" line="default" themecolor="1"]Are fats good or bad? Which types of fats are good and which types are bad? And how much fat is bad and how much is good? Is fat bad for everyone or only for some or for some more so than others? These are among the many confusing questions that we encounter everyday. And one can find a variety of confusing information on the internet, from diet plans which recommend overloading on fats to fat avoidance.

For decades, nutritionists and doctors have preached that a low-fat diet is the key to maintaining optimal weight and preventing health problems. But in recent times, research has shown that a diet rich in healthy fats can be better for people, particularly if those fats are used to offset the consumption of foods containing high levels of salt, sugar and refined carbs. Recent U.S dietary guidelines (2015) no longer focus on the restriction of fat in the diet, instead emphasizing the quality of fat

The evolutionary perspective

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[one_second]One of the key features that distinguishes humans from other primates is the larger brain size, and a relatively large portion of the our  daily energy intake is consumed in the brain. This could have necessitated humans to consume foods with high energy density such as fats, especially long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, in order to meet the high energy demands of the larger brains. The same could be attributed to our enhanced ability to prefer, detect, digest and metabolise high fat foods, and larger amounts of animal foods compared to other primates. Evidence indicates that the human evolution took place on an omega 3 rich diet found in East- African land-water ecosystems which made it easy to get iodine, vitamin A and omega 3 rich foods both from plants and fish necessary for brain functions. When humans migrated out of Africa, new evolutionary adaptations developed to enable survival in various environments with diverse food sources.

The dietary fats have undergone tremendous changes in terms of quantity and quality over the past 10,000 years. Some of the notable changes in the modern day diet in terms of dietary fat quality are the increased intake of saturated fatty acids, linoleic acid (LA), [/one_second]

omega-3-fatty-acid

[one_second]derived from omega 6 fatty acids and industrially produced trans fatty acids and reduced intakes of omega 3 fatty acids, dominance of more arachidonic acid, derived from LA in the diet. These changes are thought to have a broad impact on one’s health including chronic low grade inflammation leading to metabolic syndrome and its sequelae .[/one_second]

 

Long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids

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Long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs), arachidonic acid (AA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) provides structure for cells, act as messengers between and within cells, and play a major role in lipid and sugar balance in the body. Our body converts all the shorter length polyunsaturated fatty acids (SCPUFAs) to LCPUFAs by using FADS (fatty acid desaturase) enzyme, produced by the FADS genes such as FADS1 and FADS2.

Plant based fats such as those from foods like vegetable oils, seeds and nuts, are SCPUFAs, the shorter length fatty acids such as alpha linolenic acid (omega 3) and linolenic acid ( omega 6) and need to be converted to LCPUFAs such as EPA, DHA and AA respectively in order to be utilized by our body, whereas animal  based fats such as fish, eggs or steak already contains longer length LCPUFAs and our body can readily utilise them without the need for conversion.There are different types of FADS1 gene and the type you carry determines how well the SCPUFAs are converted to LCPUFAs. People carrying the “C” type of this gene have reduced conversion ability, and such people need to get their PUFA from animal sources especially fish or from supplements. Whereas people carrying the “T” type of this gene have efficient conversion ability and they need not rely on animal sources of PUFA to meet their  needs.

A recent study done at the Cornell University compared 234 individuals of a primarily vegetarian Indian population and 311 individuals of traditional meat eating American population. Using 1000 genomes project, the study provided evidence that people with long ancestry of plant based diet have developed a mutation in the FADS2 gene, that has helped them convert SCPUFAs to LCPUFAs, hence fulfill their Omega-3 requirements from plant based sources. The study also points out people with FADS2 “vegetarian-gene” type are at higher risk of cardiac disease and cancer when they switch to a non-vegetarian diet.

NL

Credit: Kaixiong Ye, Cornell University/Map from www.outline-world-map.com The graph shows the global frequency pattern of an allele adaptive to vegetarian diets. The allele has the highest frequency in Indians, who have traditionally relied heavily on plant-based diets.

Thus, prescribing personalised diets based on the type of FADS genes – insertion type or the deletion type can be an important consideration for precision nutrition and medicine.

Want to know if you have the “the vegetarian gene” Xcode’s nutrigenetics test can tell you what versions of the FADS1 gene you have in your DNA. You can also learn about how your genes may influence other traits, including your risk for certain diseases.  You can write to us at info@xcode.in

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