Hydroxychloroquine: An Introduction
Hydroxychloroquine is a derivative of chloroquine that has both anti-inflammatory and antimalarial activities. It is also used as an antirheumatic agent (used to treat joint pain) in systemic lupus erythematosus and rheumatoid arthritis.
The exact mechanism of hydroxychloroquine action is unknown. It has been documented that its activity hampers the parasite’s ability to break down hemoglobin, preventing its normal growth and replication.
Several in vitro studies have confirmed the effectiveness of hydroxychloroquine on severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) virus. Multiple clinical trials are currently being conducted to identify the effect of hydroxychloroquine on COVID-19.
Genetics and Hydroxychloroquine Response
The IL-10 Gene and Hydroxychloroquine Response
The IL-10 gene contains instructions for the production of a cytokine protein, which plays an anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory role in lymphocytes. A study in mice documented that the cytokine functions as an essential immunoregulatory in the intestinal tract. Genetic variations in this gene may alter the production of IL-10 and influence the susceptibility to autoimmune diseases.
rs1800896 and Hydroxychloroquine Response
The rs1800896 is a single nucleotide polymorphism or an SNP in the IL-10 gene associated with the regulation of IL10 production.
In a case-control study on patients with SLE (Systemic Lupus Erythematosus), people with TT genotype responded better to hydroxychloroquine.
- Hydroxychloroquine is a drug used to treat acute attacks of malaria, systemic lupus erythematosus (a chronic inflammatory condition of the body), and rheumatoid arthritis.
- Hydroxychloroquine works by killing the organisms that cause malaria; however, the exact mechanism of action is unknown.
- Several studies have confirmed the effectiveness of hydroxychloroquine on severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) virus.
- Studies have shown that a person's genetic makeup can influence the response to hydroxychloroquine.
- IL-10 gene contains the production of a type of cytokine protein with anti-inflammatory effects.
- People with certain variants of this gene gave a better response to hydroxychloroquine than others.