Xcode Life's Gout DNA Report
Researchers have identified several genes associated with gout.
In the sample report below, we've attempted to analyze some important genes that increase the risk of gout.
Gout is one type of arthritis that results in inflammation, tenderness, and redness of one or more joints (ankles, wrists, fingers, and knees), most frequently the big toe joint.
People with gout have high levels of a chemical compound called urate or uric acid in their blood (hyperuricemia).
Uric acid is formed when purines break down, which are found naturally in the body.
Purines are substances obtained from certain seafood and meat.
Alcoholic beverages and sweetened drinks also increase uric acid in the blood.
Generally, uric acid dissolves in the blood and is excreted by the kidneys through the urine.
But sometimes, the body produces excess uric acid, or the kidneys excrete too little uric acid.
During this stage, uric acid builds up and forms sharp, needle-like structures called urate crystals that accumulate in joints, and the immune system reacts by causing inflammation.
Types of Gout
Gout can be classified into two types based on the source of accumulation of uric acid:
- Primary gout
- Secondary gout
Primary gout is due to overproduction or under-excretion of uric acid.
It is because of factors like dietary excess, excessive alcohol consumption, and metabolic syndrome.
Secondary gout is due to medications that induce hyperuricemia while treating myeloproliferative diseases.
Secondary gout is mostly a result of the comorbidity of such diseases.
Symptoms of Gout
Gout sufferers frequently experience sudden, excruciating pain attacks that start at night and linger for up to 12 hours.
This extreme discomfort which usually begins at night is a significant symptom of gout.
Most people only have pain in one particular joint. Your big toe is commonly where it starts, although it can happen anywhere.
Other gout symptoms include:
- Restricted movement of joints
- Redness, stiffness, and swelling in joints
- Long-lasting pain for days or weeks
Is Gout Hereditary?
Gout is substantially inherited. In other words, you might get gout if you have a family member with the condition.
A group of researchers analyzed 4.2 million recognizable families.
They discovered strong evidence that gout runs in families with higher risks for those with first- and second-degree relatives with the condition.
The risk of developing the condition rises when more first-degree relatives get diagnosed.
Having a parent or child with gout carries a 2-fold risk, but having a twin sibling with gout carries an 8-fold risk.
What Percentage Of People With Gout Have Relatives With The Condition?
65% of gout cases are heritable. The measure of a genetic effect is heritability.
An estimated 20% of gout sufferers have a relative with the condition.
Your risk is higher if it's a first-degree relative, such as a sibling or parent.
Is Gout Genetic?
The impact of genetics on the likelihood of developing gout was significantly bigger than that of food, according to a 2018 meta-analysis of the genetics and eating habits of more than 16,000 healthy American people.
Genes that code for urate transporters play a prominent role in gout.
Urate transporters mediate urate excretion.
A variation in one of these urate-related genes may cause gout.
The genes that have so far been identified to have the strongest association with gout
- Solute carrier family 2 member 9 (SLC2A9)
- Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) binding cassette subfamily G member 2 (ABCG2)
SLC2A9 Gene and Gout
The SLC2A9 gene codes for a protein called GLUT-9 found in your kidneys.
Your blood is filtered by your kidneys, which also excrete waste as urine.
The protein aids in the reabsorption of urate back into your blood.
It also assists in the removal of urate through urine.
An increase in urate reabsorption or a decrease in urate excretion may be influenced by a mutation in the SLC2A9 gene.
This may result in hyperuricemia and, eventually, gout.
ABCG2 Gene and Gout
The ABCG2 gene codes for a multifunctional transporter protein called ABCG2.
A protein that is primarily present in your stomach and liver.
The protein is in charge of enabling your intestines to release urate.
This lets your body expel urate through your stool or poop.
However, if your ABCG2 gene is altered, the protein won't be able to release urate into your intestines as it should.
Your urate excretion may decrease; as a result, increasing your urate levels and leading to gout.
Who Is Prone To Gout?
You have a higher risk of getting gout if you:
- Have a family member or relative with gout.
Family history plays a vital role in passing the disease through generations.
- Are a person who is male by birth.
Uric acid levels are comparatively higher in men than in women. Though women develop mild symptoms after menopause, men develop the condition by their mid-30s to 50s.
- Are overweight.
Obesity leads to excessive production of uric acid, which the kidneys struggle to eliminate.
- Are undergoing some treatment that includes specific medications, like diuretics, that promote the body's release of urine.
Low-dose aspirin and several drugs used to treat hypertension, such as thiazide diuretics, ACE inhibitors, and beta blockers, can also raise uric acid levels.
- Eat purine-rich foods, like red meat or organ meat, and drink alcohol, high-fructose beverages, etc.
- Possess diseases, including hypertension, metabolic syndrome, diabetes, or congestive heart failure.
Can Genetic Testing Predict The Likelihood Of Developing Gout?
It is possible to have a genetic test for gout.
The test looks for gene mutations known as "risk alleles" linked to gout susceptibility.
You are more likely to get gout if you carry more risk alleles.
A doctor can advise you if you should get genetically tested for gout.
Summary: Is Gout Hereditary?
- Gout is a prevalent and complicated form of arthritis that anyone can develop.
- A high level of uric acid in the blood (hyperuricemia) is the primary reason for gout.
- Extreme pain with redness, stiffness, and swelling in joints are the symptoms of gout.
- Studies have proven that gout runs in families and has a strong genetic association.
- Variations in the SLC2A9 and ABCG2 genes strongly influence the development of gout.
- Other risk factors include family history, gender, age, diet, medications, etc.